Gir lies between 20o40' N and 21o50' N latitudes and 70o50' E and 77o50' E longitudes. The land configuration is mainly undulating with moderate hills, valleys and plateaus, with definite direction of hill ranges. Northern parts are more hilly, while the
Southern parts are relatively less hilly, with general drainage direction being south and south-west.
The hills are of volcanic origin. The main geological formation is Deccan trap and main rock type are Dolomite and Basalt. Besides sandstone, lime stone and metamorphic schist are also present.
Volcanic rocks have given rise to the black cotton soil and sandstones and lime stones have given rise to reddish brown sandy loam soil. Soil texture varies from gravelly along the river banks, clay in deep valleys to stony and murum of hills.